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English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop

English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop
HENRY THE FIRST - 1100-1135.

By Pauline Weston Thomas for Fashion-Era.com

English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop
HENRY THE FIRST - 1100-1135

This costume history information consists of Pages 21 to 28 of the chapter on 12th century dress in the era of Henry The First 1100-1135 and taken from English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop.

The 36 page section consists of a text copy of the book ENGLISH COSTUME PAINTED & DESCRIBED BY DION CLAYTON CALTHROP.  Visuals, drawings and painted fashion plates in the book have a charm of their own and are shown amid the text. The book covers both male and female dress history of over 700 years spanning the era 1066-1830. This page is about dress in the 35 year reign of King Henry The First 1100-1135.

For the Introduction to this book see this introduction written by Dion Clayton Calthrop.  I have adjusted the images so they are mostly 400 pixels high and can be used for colouring worksheets where pupils add some costume/society facts.
My comments are in italics.

.

HENRY THE FIRST

Reigned thirty-five years: 1100-1135.
Born 1068. Married to Matilda of Scotland, 1100; to Adela of Louvain, 1121.

THE MEN

Male Costume c1100ADThe Father of Popular Literature, Gerald of Wales, says: 'It is better to be dumb than not to be understood. New times require new fashions, and so I have thrown utterly aside the old and dry methods of some authors, and aimed at adopting the fashion of speech which is actually in vogue to-day.'

Vainly, perhaps, I have endeavoured to follow this precept laid down by Father Gerald, trying by slight pictures of the times to make the dry bones live, to make the clothes stir up and puff themselves into the shapes of men.

It is almost a necessity that one who would describe, paint, stage, or understand the costume of this reign should know the state of England at the time.

For there is in this reign a distinction without a difference in clothes; the shapes are almost identical to the shapes and patterns of the previous reigns, but everybody is a little better dressed.

Fur Lined Mantles

The mantles worn by the few in the time of William the Red are worn now by most of the nobility, fur-lined and very full.

One may see on the sides of the west door of Rochester Cathedral Henry and his first wife, and notice that the mantle he wears is very full; one may see that he wears a supertunic, which is gathered round his waist. This tunic is the usual Norman tunic reaching to the knee, but now it is worn over an under-tunic which reaches to the ground in heavy folds.

One may notice that the King's hair is long and elegantly twisted into pipes or ringlets, and that it hangs over his shoulders.

A MAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY I - 1100-1135 Man in 1100-1135 - Male Cloak and Costume

Right - The man's hair is curled in ringlets a fashion of the time. The shirts shows under the tunic and over this is a long bordered cloak. The corner design is from a sanctuary door-knocker.

No longer is the priestly abuse of 'filthy goat' applicable, for Henry's beard is neatly trimmed and cut round his face.

These two things are the only practical difference between the two dates - the end of the eleventh century and the beginning of the twelfth.

The Under Tunic

The under-tunic was made as a perfectly plain gown with tight sleeves ending at the wrist; it hung loose and full upon the figure. Over this was worn the short tunic with wide sleeves ending at the elbow. Both tunics would have broad borders of embroidered work or bands of coloured material.

The Supertunic

The supertunic would be brooched by one of those circular Norman brooches which was an ornamental circle of open gold-work in which stones and jewels were set. The brooch was fastened by a central pin.

The extravagances of the previous reign were in some measure done away with; even the very long hair was not fashionable in the latter half of this reign, and the ultra-long sleeve was not so usual.

So we may give as a list of clothes for men in this reign:

A white linen shirt.
A long tunic, open at the neck, falling to the ground, with tight sleeves to the wrist.
A short tunic reaching only to the knees, more open at the neck than the long tunic, generally fastened by a brooch.

Tight, well-fitting drawers or loose trousers.

Bandages or garters crossed from the ankle to the knee to confine the loose trousers or ornament the tights.
Boots of soft leather which had an ornamental band at the top.Woman's Long Braids Plaits Hair Style c1130s
Socks with an embroidered top.
Shoes of cloth and leather with an embroidered band down the centre and round the top.
Shoes of skin tied with leather thongs.

Caps of skin or cloth of a very plain shape and without a brim.
Belts of leather or cloth or silk.

Semicircular cloaks fastened as previously described, and often lined with fur.

The clothes of every colour, but with little or no pattern; the patterns principally confined to irregular groups of dots.

And to think that in the year in which Henry died Nizami visited the grave of Omar Al Khayym in the Hira Cemetery at Nishapur!

THE WOMEN
Hair 1100-1135

The greatest change in the appearance of the women was in the arrangement of the hair.

After a hundred years or more of headcloths and hidden hair suddenly appears a head of hair. Until now a lady might have been bald for all the notice she took of her hair; now she must needs borrow hair to add to her own, so that her plaits shall be thick and long.

It is easy to see how this came about.

1130 - Woman With Hair In Plaits - Time of Henry The FirstThe hair, for convenience, had always been plaited in two plaits and coiled round the head, where it lay concealed by the wimple. One day some fine lady decides to discard her close and uncomfortable head-covering. She lets her plaits hang over her shoulders, and so appears in public. See more on these lady's hair

Silken Cases For Hair

Contempt of other ladies who have fine heads of hair for the thinness of her plaits; competition in thick and long hair; anger of ladies whose hair is not thick and long; enormous demand for artificial hair; failure of the supply to meet the ever-increasing demand; invention of silken cases filled with a substitute for hair, these cases attached to the end of the plaits to elongate them - in this manner do many fashions arrive and flourish, until such time as the common people find means of copying them, and then my lady wonders how she could ever have worn such a common affair.

The Ladies Gowns

The gowns of these ladies remained much the same, except that the loose gown, without any show of the figure, was in great favour; this gown was confined by a long girdle.

The girdle was a long rope of silk or wool, which was placed simply round the waist and loosely knotted; or it was wound round above the waist once, crossed behind, and then knotted in front, and the ends allowed to hang down. The ends of the girdle had tassels and knots depending from them.

The silk cases into which the hair was placed were often made of silk of variegated colours, and these cases had metal ends or tassels.

The girdles sometimes were broad bands of silk diapered with gold thread, of which manufacture specimens remain to us.

A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY I - 1100-1135 Women's Costume -  Loose Pelisse 1100-1135

This costume history illustration below shows the pendant sleeve with an embroidered hem. The long plaits of hair were held fast at the ends with metal, or silk tags. A white chemise is visible at the neck and wrists.

The Sleeves of The Gown

The sleeves of the gowns had now altered in shape, and had acquired a sort of pendulent cuff, which hung down about two hands' breadth from the wrist. The border was, as usual, richly ornamented.

The Pelisse - A Loose Silk Coat - 1100-1135

Then we have a new invention, the pelisse. It is a loose silk coat, which is brooched at the waist, or buttoned into a silk loop. The sleeves are long - that is, they gradually increase in size from the underarm to the wrist, and sometimes are knotted at the ends, and so are unlike the other gown sleeves, which grow suddenly long near to the wrist.

This pelisse reaches to the knees, and is well open in front. The idea was evidently brought back from the East after the knights arrived back from the First Crusade, as it is in shape exactly like the coats worn by Persian ladies.

We may conceive a nice picture of Countess Constance, the wife of Hugh Lufus, Earl of Chester, as she appeared in her dairy fresh from milking the cows, which were her pride. No doubt she did help to milk them; and in her long under-gown, with her plaits once more confined in the folds of her wimple, she made cheeses - such good cheeses that Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, rejoiced in a present of some of them.Child 1100

What a change it must have been to Matilda, free of the veil that she hated, from the Black Nuns of Romsey, and the taunts and blows of her aunt Christina, to become the wife of King Henry, and to disport herself in fine garments and long plaited hair - Matilda the very royal, the daughter of a King, the sister to three Kings, the wife of a King, the mother of an Empress!

A CHILD OF THE TIME OF HENRY I.

It is only in quite recent years that there have been quite distinct dresses for children, fashions indeed which began with the ideas for the improvement in hygiene. For many centuries children were dressed, with slight modifications, after the manner of their parents, looking like little men and women, until in the end they arrived at the grotesque infants of Hogarth's day, powdered and patched, with little stiff skirted suits and stiff brocade gowns, with little swords and little fans and, no doubt, many pretty airs and graces.

One thing I have never seen until the early sixteenth century, and that is girls wearing any of the massive head-gear of their parents; in all other particulars they were the same.

 

HENRY THE FIRST

Reigned thirty-five years: 1100-1135.
Born 1068. Married to Matilda of Scotland, 1100; to Adela of Louvain, 1121.

This costume history information consists of Pages 21 to 28 of the chapter on 12th century dress in the era of Henry The First 1100-1135 and taken from English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop.

The 36 page section consists of a text copy of the book ENGLISH COSTUME PAINTED & DESCRIBED BY DION CLAYTON CALTHROP.  Visuals, drawings and painted fashion plates in the book have a charm of their own and are shown amid the text. The book covers both male and female dress history of over 700 years spanning the era 1066-1830. This page is about dress in the 35 year reign of King Henry The First 1100-1135.

For the Introduction to this book see this introduction written by Dion Clayton Calthrop.  I have adjusted the images so they are mostly 400 pixels high and can be used for colouring worksheets where pupils add some costume/society facts.
My comments are in italics.

You have been reading English Costume History at www.fashion-era.com © from the chapter Henry The First 1100-1135 from Dion Clayton Calthrop's book English Costume.

 

 

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